Table 4 also reports the number of immigrants from each country who arrived in or later. Thus, the table reads as follows:
Its land mass encompasses 42, square milessquare kilometersbordered by Mexico to the north and west, El Salvador and Honduras to the south and east, the Pacific Ocean along its West Coast, and Belize and the Caribbean Sea to the north and east. The southern half of the Republic of Guatemala mainly consists of beautiful mountain highlands and plateaus, which are susceptible to devastating earthquakes.
There is also a narrow Pacific coastal plain and a small Caribbean lowland area. Most of Guatemala's population and its major cities, including the capital, Guatemala City, are located in the southern region. Guatemala has a population of about ten million people and the largest indigenous population in Central America.
Although estimates of the indigenous population vary greatly from as low as 40 percent of the total population to as high as 85 percent, most sources estimate it at over 50 percent.
Most of the indigenous groups are Mayan, although small numbers of Pipil Aztecs live in the southern and eastern areas and Xincas in the east. More than a racial classification, the term indigena indigenous refers to cultural and linguistic groups.
The population of Spanish-speaking ladinos consists of the small Caucasian elite class; the substantial number of mestizos of mixed Spanish and indigenous race; minorities of African, Chinese, and Arab descent; and indigenous people who no longer consciously identify themselves as such.
Guatemala's smallest ethnic group is the Garifuna, descendants of African and Carib people formerly from the island of St. Vincent who reside along the Caribbean coast.
Guatemala's official language is Spanish. However, the Maya speak over 20 distinct languages and numerous dialects, and many do not speak Spanish. These languages are spoken by distinct indigenous groups. Although Roman Catholicism is the dominant religion, many Mayan Guatemalans have traditionally practiced a syncretist form of Catholicism, blending Catholic and Mayan rites and beliefs.
Since the s, Evangelical Pentecostal Protestantism has been on the rise in Guatemala, and it surged in popularity during the s. Two modern presidents have been Evangelical Pentecostal Protestants and up to one-third of the population now practices this religion. Guatemala's national symbol of independence and pride is the quetzal, a brilliantly colored tropical bird native to Central America.
According to legend, the quetzal lost its voice after the Spanish Conquest in the sixteenth century. However, the Mayan city-states were also very militaristic, usually warring with each other and devoting much of their energies and resources to military efforts.
This penchant for warfare may have contributed to the mysterious disappearance of Mayan civilization by A. By the time the Spanish arrived, there were about one million indigenous people whose violent feuding facilitated their conquest.
Bymost of the indigenous people had been wiped out by disease, war, and exploitation, and their numbers had dwindled to aboutFrom tothe Spanish, led by Pedro de Alvarado, colonized many Mayan city-states.
De Alvarado became the first captain general of Guatemala, which then encompassed most of Central America. InGuatemala gained independence from Spain, and in it joined the Central American Federation. Inthe Federation disbanded, due mostly to a revolt against it led by an indigenous general, Rafael Carrera, who then seized control of the newly independent nation of Guatemala.
Ina liberal caudillo or military dictator, Justo Rufino Barrios, took power and ruled as president from to Barrios enacted anti-clerical legislation, began to establish a national education system, and fostered the inception of Guatemala's coffee industry.
Guatemala was ruled by a succession of military dictators until the last caudillo, Jorge Ubico, was overthrown in Shortly thereafter, Juan Jose Arevalo, a university professor exiled to Argentina, was called back and elected president.
Arevalo instituted political democracy in Guatemala, encouraging organized labor, the formation of a social security system, and industrialization. Arevalo's successor, Colonel Jacobo Arbenz Guzman, introduced a radical agrarian reform program that redistributed land from wealthy landowners and much of the holdings of the U.
United Fruit had dominated the commercial banana industry and exploited peasant workers since the early twentieth century. Arbenz's challenge to United Fruit and his support of Guatemala's Communist party resulted in conflict with the company and U. In mid, Arbenz was overthrown by a U. During the next 30 years, most of the agrarian and labor reforms achieved under Arevalo and Arbenz were undone by a succession of mostly military rulers.
Since the s, leftist guerrillas have attempted to undermine these regimes, while right-wing paramilitary death squads have fought back against the guerrillas by brutally repressing the civilian population.
According to Amnesty International, at least 20, civilians were killed by the death squads from to During the late s, a popular resistance movement to the military governments began to operate through a collaboration among ladinos, indigenas, peasants, labor leaders, students, journalists, politicians, and Catholic priests.
In response, the army and paramilitary counterinsurgency units stepped up their repression efforts.I started using Twitter the day the CA3blog site crashed. In September of last year, I wrote something provocative here about a book by Judge Posner (“batshit crazy”) that got a bazillion hits from readers on Twitter, enough hits to bring down the blog’s website.
Until that day I’d been a proud Twitter hold-out, but crashing my humble blog got my attention. Illegal immigration to the United States is the unlawful entry of foreign nationals into the United States, and the remaining in the country of admitted foreign nationals after the expiration of their U.S.
visas or parole documents. Earlier naturalization laws were followed by the and Acts prohibiting Chinese immigrants. A act required immigrants to learn English in order to.
United States - The Barack Obama administration: The crisis worked against McCain, whom many voters associated with the unpopular policies of the administration, and worked for the highly charismatic Obama, whose campaign from its outset had been based on the theme of sweeping political change.
Obama defeated McCain, becoming the first African American elected to the presidency. 12 October USMCA Immigration to US: USMCA TN Visa for Canadians. On September 30th, the United States, Canada and Mexico officially unveiled their new trade agreement- USMCA.
Public Education Public Schools. One the biggest impacts of immigration is on U.S. public schools.
The American Community Survey (ACS) asks respondents if they are in school, and if the school is public or private, so it is possible to report statistics for students from immigrant and native households by the type of school they attend. The Facts on Immigration Today.
The United States spends more on immigration and border enforcement annually than the annual gross domestic product of 80 countries. Center for American.