Consequences of the columbian exchange essay

Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Write an essay on one unintended consequence of the Columbian Exchange. To begin, read the examples of actions and consequences below, and note how each consequence was intended or unintended.

Consequences of the columbian exchange essay

View a visualization of the Columbian Exchange. That separation lasted so long that it fostered divergent evolution; for instance, the development of rattlesnakes on one side of the Atlantic and vipers on the other. Afterhuman voyagers in part reversed this tendency.

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Their artificial re-establishment of connections through the commingling of Old and New World plants, animals, and bacteria, commonly known as the Columbian Exchange, is one of the more spectacular and significant ecological events of the past millennium.

When Europeans first touched the shores of the Americas, Old World crops such as wheat, barley, rice, and turnips had not traveled west across the Atlantic, and New World crops such as maize, white potatoes, sweet potatoes, and manioc had not traveled east to Europe.

In the Americas, there were no horses, cattle, sheep, or goats, all animals of Old World origin. Among these germs were those that carried smallpox, measles, chickenpox, influenza, malaria, and yellow fever.

The Columbian exchange of crops affected both the Old World and the New. Amerindian crops that have crossed oceans—for example, maize to China and the white potato to Ireland—have been stimulants to population growth in the Old World.

Consequences of the columbian exchange essay

The full story of the exchange is many volumes long, so for Consequences of the columbian exchange essay sake of brevity and clarity let us focus on a specific region, the eastern third of the United States of America.

As might be expected, the Europeans who settled on the east coast of the United States cultivated crops like wheat and apples, which they had brought with them.

European weeds, which the colonists did not cultivate and, in fact, preferred to uproot, also fared well in the New World. More importantly, they were stripping and burning forests, exposing the native minor flora to direct sunlight and to the hooves and teeth of Old World livestock.

The native flora could not tolerate the stress. The imported weeds could, because they had lived with large numbers of grazing animals for thousands of years. Cattle and horses were brought ashore in the early s and found hospitable climate and terrain in North America.

Horses arrived in Virginia as early as and in Massachusetts in Many wandered free with little more evidence of their connection to humanity than collars with a hook at the bottom to catch on fences as they tried to leap over them to get at crops. Fences were not for keeping livestock in, but for keeping livestock out.

Native American resistance to the Europeans was ineffective. Indigenous peoples suffered from white brutality, alcoholism, the killing and driving off of game, and the expropriation of farmland, but all these together are insufficient to explain the degree of their defeat.

The crucial factor was not people, plants, or animals, but germs. The history of the United States begins with Virginia and Massachusetts, and their histories begin with epidemics of unidentified diseases.

The disease was so strange that they neither knew what it was, nor how to cure it.

Consequences of the columbian exchange essay

The first recorded pandemic of that disease in British North America detonated among the Algonquin of Massachusetts in the early s: In alone the epidemic destroyed half the Cherokee; in nearly half the Catawbas; in the first years of the next century two-thirds of the Omahas and perhaps half the entire population between the Missouri River and New Mexico; in — nearly every last one of the Mandans and perhaps half the people of the high plains.

European explorers encountered distinctively American illnesses such as Chagas Disease, but these did not have much effect on Old World populations.

Venereal syphilis has also been called American, but that accusation is far from proven. Even if we add all the Old World deaths blamed on American diseases together, including those ascribed to syphilis, the total is insignificant compared to Native American losses to smallpox alone.

Maize, white potatoes, sweet potatoes, various squashes, chiles, and manioc have become essentials in the diets of hundreds of millions of Europeans, Africans, and Asians. Their influence on Old World peoples, like that of wheat and rice on New World peoples, goes far to explain the global population explosion of the past three centuries.

The Columbian Exchange has been an indispensable factor in that demographic explosion. All this had nothing to do with superiority or inferiority of biosystems in any absolute sense. It has to do with environmental contrasts.

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Amerindians were accustomed to living in one particular kind of environment, Europeans and Africans in another. When the Old World peoples came to America, they brought with them all their plants, animals, and germs, creating a kind of environment to which they were already adapted, and so they increased in number.

Amerindians had not adapted to European germs, and so initially their numbers plunged. The Roanoke Voyages, — Hakluyt Society, Allan and Farnham, Knopf, Crosby is professor emeritus of history, geography, and American studies at the University of Texas at Austin.

In addition to his seminal work on this topic, The Columbian Exchange: The Influenza of and Ecological Imperialism:Jan 14,  · Best Answer: That's a giant question, and the effects are still coming at us. We can take a look briefly at three categories to get an overview: Agriculture, Diseases and Religion.

Agriculture: Many of the plant foods we take for granted came from the Columbian Resolved. Effects of Columbian Exchange Essay Words Oct 30th, 4 Pages The Effects of the Columbian Exchange It was the year , and a man by the name of Christopher Columbus set sail from Spain where he then landed in the present day Americas, sparking one of the most important events in the world, the Columbian exchange.

The Columbian exchange of crops affected both the Old World and the New. Amerindian crops that have crossed oceans—for example, maize to China and the white potato to Ireland—have been stimulants to population growth in the Old World.

Three negative consequences of the Columbian exchange are the plague of smallpox, the inequality between Europeans and American Indians, and the pollution of the New World.

The plague of smallpox is a major negative consequence of the Columbian exchange. Describe the Columbian Exchange. What was exchanged? and conclusion (where you summarize, but don’t repeat, the primary points of your essay).

Columbus was the initiator and namesake of the Columbian Exchange—the rapid exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old and New Worlds that began with Columbus' journeys. The uneven biological and ecological impacts of the Columbian Exchange largely accounted for the divergent fates of Native Americans, Europeans, and even. Exploration essay Created: PM PST Who won and what were the long-term consequences of this victory? 7. Discuss the implications of the Columbian exchange. What crops and animals were being shipped back and forth? Was there a negative side to this exchange? What would be the long-term consequences? It is an essay about the conquest and colonization of the Americas, primarily by Spain and Portugal, and the tragedy of the Atlantic Slave Trade and Triangular Trade as well as mercantilism It is an essay about the consequences of the Columbian Exchange and the intensification of global trade.

Your responses must be typed generally agree that it was transformative. Describe the Columbian Exchange. What was exchanged? What were the consequences of that exchange? What, in your opinion.

The Columbian exchange has shaped the world to what it is today with the exchange of goods from the Old World to the New World, and vice versa.

The Columbian exchange caused numerous short and long-term effects in the Americas and many other parts of the world.

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