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Visit Website Did you know? According to the U. Census Bureau, there are about 4. The Inuit and Aleut had a great deal in common. Many lived in dome-shaped houses made of sod or timber or, in the North, ice blocks. They used seal and otter skins to make warm, weatherproof clothing, aerodynamic dogsleds and long, open fishing boats kayaks in Inuit; baidarkas in Aleut.
By the time European contact with the natives United States purchased Alaska indecades of oppression and exposure to European diseases had taken their toll: The native population had dropped to just 2,; the descendants of these survivors still make their home in the area today.
The Subarctic The Subarctic culture area, mostly composed of swampy, piney forests taiga and waterlogged tundra, stretched across much of inland Alaska and Canada. In the Subarctic, travel was difficult—toboggans, snowshoes and lightweight canoes were the primary means of transportation—and population was sparse.
In general, the peoples of the Subarctic did not form large permanent settlements; instead, small family groups stuck together as they traipsed after herds of caribou.
They lived in small, easy-to-move tents and lean-tos, and when it grew too cold to hunt they hunkered into underground dugouts. Its inhabitants were members of two main groups: Iroquoian speakers these included the Cayuga, Oneida, Erie, Onondaga, Seneca and Tuscaroramost of whom lived along inland rivers and lakes in fortified, politically stable villages, and the more numerous Algonquian speakers these included the Pequot, Fox, Shawnee, Wampanoag, Delaware and Menominee who lived in small farming and fishing villages along the ocean.
There, they grew crops like corn, beans and vegetables. Life in the Northeast culture area was already fraught with conflict—the Iroquoian groups tended to be rather aggressive and warlike, and bands and villages outside of their allied confederacies were never safe from their raids—and it grew more complicated when European colonizers arrived.
Meanwhile, as white settlement pressed westward, it eventually displaced both sets of indigenous people from their lands.
The Southeast The Southeast culture area, north of the Gulf of Mexico and south of the Northeast, was a humid, fertile agricultural region. Many of its natives were expert farmers—they grew staple crops like maize, beans, squash, tobacco and sunflower—who organized their lives around small ceremonial and market villages known as hamlets.
Perhaps the most familiar of the Southeastern indigenous peoples are the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole, sometimes called the Five Civilized Tribes, who all spoke a variant of the Muskogean language. By the time the U.
Inthe federal Indian Removal Act compelled the relocation of what remained of the Five Civilized Tribes so that white settlers could have their land. The Cherokee called this frequently deadly trek the Trail of Tears.
Before the arrival of European traders and explorers, its inhabitants—speakers of Siouan, Algonquian, Caddoan, Uto-Aztecan and Athabaskan languages—were relatively settled hunters and farmers.
After European contact, and especially after Spanish colonists brought horses to the region in the 18th century, the peoples of the Great Plains became much more nomadic.
Groups like the Crow, Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Comanche and Arapaho used horses to pursue great herds of buffalo across the prairie. The most common dwelling for these hunters was the cone-shaped teepee, a bison-skin tent that could be folded up and carried anywhere.
Plains Indians are also known for their elaborately feathered war bonnets. As white traders and settlers moved west across the Plains region, they brought many damaging things with them: With settlers encroaching on their lands and no way to make money, the Plains natives were forced onto government reservations.
The Southwest The peoples of the Southwest culture area, a huge desert region in present-day Arizona and New Mexico along with parts of ColoradoUtahTexas and Mexico developed two distinct ways of life. Sedentary farmers such as the Hopi, the Zuni, the Yaqui and the Yuma grew crops like corn, beans and squash.
Many lived in permanent settlements, known as pueblos, built of stone and adobe. These pueblos featured great multistory dwellings that resembled apartment houses. At their centers, many of these villages also had large ceremonial pit houses, or kivas.
Other Southwestern peoples, such as the Navajo and the Apache, were more nomadic. They survived by hunting, gathering and raiding their more established neighbors for their crops. Because these groups were always on the move, their homes were much less permanent than the pueblos.
For instance, the Navajo fashioned their iconic eastward-facing round houses, known as hogans, out of materials like mud and bark. Spanish colonists and missionaries had enslaved many of the Pueblo Indians, for example, working them to death on vast Spanish ranches known as encomiendas. The Great Basin The Great Basin culture area, an expansive bowl formed by the Rocky Mountains to the east, the Sierra Nevadas to the west, the Columbia Plateau to the north, and the Colorado Plateau to the south, was a barren wasteland of deserts, salt flats and brackish lakes.Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas.
Jump to navigation Jump to search Earlier explanations for the population decline of the American natives include the European immigrants' accounts of the brutal practices of the Spanish there were other contributing factors, all of them related to European contact and.
CONTACT & CONFLICT: The Fur Trade: Contact, Trade and Alliances between First Nations and Europeans wars among the First Nations people were continued on during the s and s but backed up now by powerful European partners who were themselves traditional enemies.
smallpox - to which the Indians had no immunities.
. CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH The great CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH is historically paramount to Native American Indian history in California — it was estimated that some , immigrants poured into California during this seven-year period effectively tripling California's population..
It's been estimated that some $10 BILLION ( dollars) in gold was mined from California tribal. European contact did not affect only the native peoples; there was a genuine, if perhaps unequal, exchange. Many new crop and food plants, such as maize, beans, potatoes, peanuts, pumpkins, and avocados, were first introduced to Europe from .
Get an answer for 'How did European colonization impact the natives in North and South America?
I need informative information for a five essay answer I need to prepare.' and find homework help. The result of this contact with European germs was horrible. Sometimes whole villages perished in a short time. As early as , English explorer Thomas Harriot observed how European visits to the small villages of coastal North Carolina Indians killed the Natives.