One of the most important effects of radiation on matter is seen in photographic action. Apart from its various uses in art, commerce, and industry, photography is an invaluable scientific tool. It is used extensively in spectroscopy, in photometry, and in X-ray examinations.
The beginning of modern photojournalism took place inin Germany. The event was the invention of the first 35 mm camera, the Leica. It was designed as a way to use surplus movie film, then shot in the 35 mm format. Before this, a photo of professional quality required bulky equipment; after this photographers could go just about anywhere and take photos unobtrusively, without bulky lights or tripods.
The difference was dramatic, for primarily posed photos, with people award of the photographer's presence, to new, natural photos of people as they really lived. Added to this was another invention originally from Germany, the photojournalism magazine.
From the mids, Germany, at first, experimented with the combination of two old ideas. Old was the direct publication of photos; that was available after aboutand by the early 20th century, some publications, newspaper-style and magazine, were devoted primarily to illustrations.
But the difference of photo magazines beginning in the s was the collaboration--instead of isolated photos, laid out like in your photo album, editors and photographers begin to work together to produce an actual story told by pictures and words, or cutlines.
In this concept, photographers would shoot many more photos than they needed, and transfer them to editors. Editors would examine contact sheets, that is, sheets with all the photos on them in miniature form now done using Photoshop softwareand choose those he or she best believed told the story.
As important in the new photojournalism style was the layout and writing. Cutlines, or captions, helped tell the story along with the photos, guiding the reader through the illustrations, and photos were no longer published like a family album, or individually, just to illustrate a story.
The written story was kept to a minimum, and the one, dominant, theme-setting photo would be published larger, while others would help reinforce this theme. The combination of photography and journalism, or photojournalism--a term coined by Frank Luther Mott, historian and dean of the University of Missouri School of Journalism--really became familiar after World War II Germany's photo magazines established the concept, but Hitler's rise to power in led to suppression and persecution of most of the editors, who generally fled the country.
Many came to the United States. The time was ripe, of course, for the establishment of a similar style of photo reporting in the U. Henry Lucealready successful with Time and Fortune magazines, conceived of a new general-interest magazine relying on modern photojournalism.
It was called Life, launched Nov. The first photojournalism cover story in I was kind of unlikely, an article about the building of the Fort Peck Dam in Montana.
Margaret Bourke-White photographed this, and in particular chronicled the life of the workers in little shanty towns spring up around the building site. The Life editor in charge of photography, John Shaw Billings, saw the potential of these photos, showing a kind of frontier life of the American West that many Americans thought had long vanished.
Lifepublished weekly, immediately became popular, and was emulated by look-alikes such as Look, See, Photo, Picture, Click, and so on. As we know, only Look and Life lasted. Look went out of business in ; Life suspended publication the same year, returned in as a monthly, and finally folded as a serial in But in the World War II era, Life was probably the most influential photojournalism magazine in the world.
During that war, the most dramatic pictures of the conflict came not so often from the newspapers as from the weekly photojournalism magazines, photos that still are famous today.
The drama of war and violence could be captured on those small, fast 35 mm cameras like no other, although it had to be said that through the s and even s, not all photojournalists used 35s. Many used large hand-held cameras made by the Graflex Camera Company, and two have become legendary: These are the cameras you think of when you see old movies of photographers crowding around some celebrity, usually showing the photographer smoking a cigar and wearing a "Press" card in the hatband of his fedora.
These cameras used sheet film, which meant you had to slide a holder in the back of the camera after every exposure.Amy Touchette is a photographer based in New York City. Trained at the International Center of Photography, her first monograph, "Shoot the Arrow: A Portrait of The World Famous *BOB*," was published by Un-Gyve Press (Boston) in In July the Republican National Committee chose San Diego to be the site of the Republican National Convention, despite initial opposition from the city's mayor, Frank Curran, and despite the fact that the city did not initially bid for the opportunity.
Photography during the Civil War Contributed by James J. Broomall During the course of the American Civil War (–), more than 3, individual photographers made war-related images.
At the turn of the 20th century, one of the most influential Pictorialist groups was the Photo-Secession, founded in New York City in by photographer Alfred Stieglitz. Photographers of the American Civil War. Jump to navigation Jump to search National Archives. On January 15, , Brady died penniless in the charity ward of Presbyterian Hospital in New York City.
However, in his last days, Brady did not die in isolation. He was visited and comforted often, by friends and admirers up until the very end. The visceral and immediate impact of these images by Alexander Gardner, Timothy H.
O’Sullivan, and George Barnard freed the fine arts to explore the deeper significance of the Civil War, rather than chronicle each battle.