At the end of the 20th century, the notion of national cinemas had become problematic in many of the traditional film cultures of western Europe.
Contact between Sweden and what is now Finland was considerable even during pre-Christian times; the Vikings were known to the Finns due to their participation in both commerce and plundering.
There is possible evidence of Viking settlement in the Finnish mainland. However, some scholars claim that the archipelago was deserted during the 11th century. According to the archaeological finds, Christianity gained a foothold in Finland during the 11th century. According to the very few written documents that have survived, the church in Finland was still in its early development in the 12th century.
Later medieval legends from late 13th century describe Swedish attempts to conquer and Christianize Finland sometime in the mids. In the early 13th century, Bishop Thomas became the first known bishop of Finland.
There were several secular powers who aimed to bring the Finnish tribes under their rule. These were Sweden, Denmark, the Republic of Novgorod in northwestern Russia, and probably the German crusading orders as well.
Finns had their own chiefs, but most probably no central authority. At the time there can be seen three cultural areas or tribes in Finland: FinnsTavastians and Karelians.
It was the Swedish regent, Birger Jarlwho allegedly established Swedish rule in Finland through the Second Swedish Crusademost often dated to The Eric Chroniclethe only source narrating the "crusade", describes that it was aimed at Tavastians.
Due to papal letter from Tavastians are known to stopped being Christian and returned to their old ethnic faith earlier. Novgorod gained control in Karelia inthe region inhabited by speakers of Eastern Finnish dialects.
Western Karelians were from then on viewed as part of the western cultural sphere, while eastern Karelians turned culturally to Russia and Orthodoxy. While eastern Karelians remain linguistically and ethnically closely related to the Finns, they are considered a people of their own by most.
MODERN ERA Much of Africa's land is unsuitable for agricultural use and, therefore, is largely uninhabited. Over the centuries, severe drought and periods of war and famine have left many African nations in a state of agricultural decline and impoverishment. By the end of the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire was in extent much like Romania of the Macedonian Emperors had been in the midth century, with, of course, now the same capital, Constantinople.. Much that seems characteristic of Islam today, like the domed mosque and perhaps even the symbol of the Crescent, are due to Byzantine influence by way of the Ottomans. This term was later adopted into French as croisade and in English as crusade. The modern spelling crusade dates to c. Sinibaldo Fieschi (the future pope Innocent IV) used the terms crux transmarina for crusades in Outremer against Muslims and crux cismarina for crusades in Europe against other enemies of the church.
During the 13th century, Finland was integrated into medieval European civilization. The Dominican order arrived in Finland around and came to exercise huge influence there. In the early 14th century, the first documents of Finnish students at Sorbonne appear. In the southwestern part of the country, an urban settlement evolved in Turku.
Turku was one of the biggest towns in the Kingdom of Sweden, and its population included German merchants and craftsmen.
Otherwise the degree of urbanization was very low in medieval Finland. Southern Finland and the long coastal zone of the Bothnian Gulf had a sparse farming settlements, organized as parishes and castellanies.
In the other parts of the country a small population of Sami hunters, fishermen and small-scale farmers lived. These were exploited by the Finnish and Karelian tax collectors. In these regions, the Swedish language is widely spoken even today. Swedish came to be the language of the upper class in many other parts of Finland as well.
The name "Finland" originally signified only the southwestern province that has been known as " Finland Proper " since the 18th century.The term crusade used in modern historiography at first referred to the wars in the Holy Land beginning in , but the range of events to which the term has been applied has been greatly extended, so that its use can create a misleading impression of coherence, particularly regarding the early Crusades.
The term used for the campaign of the First Crusade was iter "journey" or peregrinatio. Get an answer for 'How did the Crusades impact the Renaissance? ' and find homework help for other The Crusades questions at eNotes.
This empowered many of the heads of Europe and they would. These years were largely those of the Omayyad Amirs and Caliphs, who may be said to have presided over the Golden Age of Islâmic Spain.
The suprisingly rapid decline of the Omayyads in the 11th century quickly led to complete political fragmentation and to grave vulnerability to the rising Christian Kingdoms.
By the end of the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire was in extent much like Romania of the Macedonian Emperors had been in the midth century, with, of course, now the same capital, Constantinople..
Much that seems characteristic of Islam today, like the domed mosque and perhaps even the symbol of the Crescent, are due to Byzantine influence by way of the Ottomans. Crusades have contributed to the development of connections between East and West.
Western Europe's trade relations with East widened. In the thirteenth century, Venice and Genoa were bringing products from the Muslim East, China and India. Mar 31, · Countries like France, Japan, and the United States are examples of modern nation-states.
The modern nation-state system began in Western Europe and would eventually encompass the globe. Today there are about nation-states and these states comprise the major political actors on the world leslutinsduphoenix.coms: 3.