Canada[ edit ] Beginning in"the definition of a stillbirth was revised to conform, in substance, to the definition of fetal death recommended by the World Health Organization. The death is indicated by the fact that after such expulsion or extraction, the fetus does not breathe or show any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles.
Mothers who have their baby prematurely are often frightened and nervous. Premature newborns face an increased risk of one or more complications. Any complication that a premature newborn experiences will be treated in the neonatal intensive care unit NICU. Below is a list of the most common complications that a premature newborn may experience: Immature Lungs — Most babies have mature lungs by 36 weeks of gestation.
However, since babies develop at different rates, there are exceptions to this. If a mother and her health care provider know that the baby might be coming early, an amniocentesis may be performed to check the maturity level of the lungs.
In some cases, an injection of steroids will be given to the baby before the delivery in order to speed the development of the lungs. Immature lungs are associated with the following complications: Respiratory Distress Syndrome RDS causes harsh, irregular breathing and difficulties due to the lack of a specific agent surfactant in the lungs that helps prevent the lungs from collapsing.
Treatment involves one or more of the following: Transient tachypnea is rapid shallow breathing. This can occur in both premature babies as well as full term babies.
Recovery usually takes three days or less. Until the newborn has recovered, feedings may be altered, and in some cases intravenous feedings may be done. There is usually no other treatment necessary.
Unfortunately, when preemies are put on a ventilator also known as respirators their lungs are still immature and sometimes cannot withstand the constant pressure from the respirator. Preemies that have been on a respirator for more than twenty-eight days are at risk of developing BPD.
Preemies can recover from this condition but some take longer to recover than others. Pneumonia — Complications with premature-related respiratory problems can lead to pneumonia.
Pneumonia is an infection in the area of the lung involved in the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen. It causes inflammation, which reduces the amount of space available for the exchange of air.
This can result in inadequate amounts of oxygen for the baby. Treatment can include antibiotics, supplemental oxygen and intubation.
If left untreated, it can develop into a deadly infection or lead to sepsis or meningitis. Apnea and Bradycardia — Apnea is the absence of breathing. In the NICU an alarm will sound if a newborn develops an irregular breathing pattern of pauses longer than seconds.
Bradycardia is the reduction of heart rate. Usually a little tap or simple rub on the back helps remind the preemie to breath and also increases the heart rate. Infection — A premature baby might not be able to resist certain infections.
For its own protection the baby is placed in an incubator to provide protection against these infections. Jaundice — A yellowish skin color caused by the buildup of substances in the blood called bilirubin. Treatment is called phototherapy.
The procedure can take from one week to 10 days. Intraventricular hemorrhage IVH — Babies born sooner than 34 weeks have an increased risk of bleeding in the brain because immature blood vessels might not tolerate the changes in circulation that took place during labor.
This can lead to future complications such as cerebral palsy, mental retardation and learning difficulties. If preterm labor is identified and is inevitable, there are medications that can be given to the mother to help reduce the risk of severe intracranial hemorrhage in the newborn.
Inability to maintain body heat — A premature baby is born with little body fat and immature skin, which makes it harder to maintain body heat.A mother is the female parent of a leslutinsduphoenix.coms are women who inhabit or perform the role of bearing some relation to their children, who may or may not be their biological leslutinsduphoenix.com, dependent on the context, women can be considered mothers by virtue of having given birth, by raising their child(ren), supplying their ovum for fertilisation, or some combination thereof.
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