Advanced Search Abstract Sound and its use in communication have significantly contributed to shaping the ecology, evolution, behavior, and ultimately the success of many animal species. Yet, the ability to use sound is not a prerogative of animals. Why should plants emit and receive sound and is there information contained in those sounds? I hypothesize that it would be particularly advantageous for plants to learn about the surrounding environment using sound, as acoustic signals propagate rapidly and with minimal energetic or fitness costs.
Greek tragedy Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance -drama that formed an important part of the theatrical culture of the city-state.
The presentations took the form of a contest between three playwrights, who presented their works on three successive days. Each playwright offered a tetralogy consisting of three tragedies and a concluding comic piece called a satyr play. Only one complete trilogy of tragedies has survived, the Oresteia of Aeschylus.
The Greek theatre was in the open air, on the side of a hill, and performances of a trilogy and satyr play probably lasted most of the day. Performances were apparently open to all citizens, including women, but evidence is scant.
The play as a whole was composed in various verse metres. All actors were male and wore masks. A Greek chorus danced as well as sang, though no one knows exactly what sorts of steps the chorus performed as it sang.
Choral songs in tragedy are often divided into three sections: This event was frequently a brutal murder of some sort, an act of violence which could not be effectively portrayed visually, but an action of which the other characters must see the effects in order for it to have meaning and emotional resonance.
Another such device was a crane, the mechanewhich served to hoist a god or goddess on stage when they were supposed to arrive flying. This device gave origin to the phrase " deus ex machina " "god out of a machine"that is, the surprise intervention of an unforeseen external factor that changes the outcome of an event.
Roman fresco in Pompeii. Probably meant to be recited at elite gatherings, they differ from the Greek versions in their long declamatory, narrative accounts of action, their obtrusive moralising, and their bombastic rhetoric. They dwell on detailed accounts of horrible deeds and contain long reflective soliloquies.
Though the gods rarely appear in these plays, ghosts and witches abound.
Senecan tragedies explore ideas of revengethe occult, the supernatural, suicide, blood and gore. Renaissance[ edit ] Influence of Greek and Roman[ edit ] Classical Greek drama was largely forgotten in Western Europe from the Middle Ages to the beginning of the 16th century.
Medieval theatre was dominated by mystery playsmorality playsfarces and miracle plays. The earliest tragedies to employ purely classical themes are the Achilles written before by Antonio Loschi of Vicenza c. Both were completed by early and are based on classical Greek models, Rosmunda on the Hecuba of Euripidesand Oreste on the Iphigenia in Tauris of the same author; like Sophonisba, they are in Italian and in blank unrhymed hendecasyllables.
Although these three Italian plays are often cited, separately or together, as being the first regular tragedies in modern times, as well as the earliest substantial works to be written in blank hendecasyllables, they were apparently preceded by two other works in the vernacular: In the s, the European university setting and especially, from on, the Jesuit colleges became host to a Neo-Latin theatre in Latin written by scholars.Classical tragedy preserves the unities -- one timespan, one setting, one story -- as they originated in the Greek theater.
It also defines a tragic plot as one with a royal character losing, through his own pride, a mighty prize. In the wake of Aristotle's Poetics ( BCE), tragedy has been used to make genre distinctions, whether at the scale of poetry in general (where the tragic divides against epic and lyric) or at the scale of the drama (where tragedy is opposed to comedy).
Tragedy, then, was designed to have a sort of purging effect upon the community – and this is even encoded within the word tragedy itself, which probably comes from the Greek for ‘goat song’.
However, tragedy is, perhaps surprisingly, not the earliest of .
Sound and its use in communication have significantly contributed to shaping the ecology, evolution, behavior, and ultimately the success of many animal species. Yet, the ability to use sound is not a prerogative of animals.
Plants may also use sound, but we have been unable to effectively research. Sound and its use in communication have significantly contributed to shaping the ecology, evolution, behavior, and ultimately the success of many animal species.
Yet, the ability to use sound is not a prerogative of animals. Selected Papers. from the. Texas Seminar on the Core Curriculum , , - to impart specific knowledge about a topic of contemporary interest.
Rhetoric and argumentation are natural here, not as a reflection of Aristotelian thought, but as among the best ways to insure that the student's own individuality survives in a.