However, the savings rate and rate of technological progress remain unexplained. Endogenous growth theory tries to overcome this shortcoming by building macroeconomic models out of microeconomic foundations. Households are assumed to maximize utility subject to budget constraints while firms maximize profits. Crucial importance is usually given to the production of new technologies and human capital.
Introduction Economic growth, from the early period of economic history, engaged the attention of man and his governments. As far back as 17th and 18th centuries, writers like The grossman helpman model Smith, David Ricardo, John Stuart Mill, as well as state theorist like Karl Marx, Friedrich List Karl Bucher, W Rostow, and neo classical economists such as Arthur Lewis  have all been preoccupied with the quest for unearthing the forces and processes that cause a change in the material progress of man.
This is also applicable to successive governments and states in these modern times. In Nigeria for instance, the broad objective of the national economic policy has been the desire to promote sustainable economic growth for the vast majority of Nigerians through the adoption of various monetary and fiscal policies.
Unfortunately, her economic growth performance has been characterized by fits and starts and the prospects of her rapid economic growth appear unachievable as reflected in her inability to realize sustainable full growth potentials and to significantly reduce the rate of poverty in the economy.
Several countries that have achieved rapid economic growth since World War II, have two common features. First, they invested in education of men and women and in physical capital. Second, they achieved high productivity from these investments by providing efficient capital markets, competitive trade-leading roles, higher level of economic efficiency driven by technological capabilities, stable polity, appropriate economic policy and economic system, World Bank, .
However, as a result of market failure that may likely occur in the process of development, it may not be ideal to leave the process of economic development entirely to the market forces especially in the developing economies like Nigeria.
Secondly, the quality of the government and its economic policies matter a lot. The radical theorist and the early proponents of development economics were of the view that growth could be internalized.
Developments in the world economies have shown that it is futile for economies to isolate themselves from rapidly integrating world, Essien and Bawa. Economic growth is a key policy objective of any government. In addressing the pertinent issues in economic management, experts and economic planners have had to choose between or combine some of the macroeconomic variables.
Economic growth, proxies by Gross Domestic Product GDP confers many benefits which include raising the general standard of living of the populace as measured by per capita national income, making income distribution easier to achieve, enhance time frame of accomplishing the basic needs of man to a substantial majority of the populace.
Conversely, economic stagnation can bring destabilizing consequences on the citizenry, Lewis . Controversies that trail growth-related issues are many, but the present and more incontrovertible is the discourse on economic growth within the context of macro-economic behavior of the economy.
This is in relation to how the economic policy goals could be achieved by the available policy instruments. To date, the general consensus is that the rate at which declining economic growth rate is permeating the LDCs requires urgent policy response in order to bring about sustainable economic growth Essien and Bawa, .
Furthermore, the Nigerian economy is basically an open economy with international transactions constituting an important proportion of her aggregate economic activity. Consequently, the economic prospects and development of the country, like many developing countries, rest critically on her international interdependence.
Over the years, despite the considerable degree of her trade openness, her performance in terms of her economic growth has remained sluggish and discouraging, Odedekun .While researching for my current diploma thesis on “new new” trade theory I realized that fully understanding (or rather: knowing by heart) the Dixit/Stiglitz () model is a necessary precondition to be able to read most of the relevant papers.
Trade Wars and Trade Talks Gene M. Grossman Princeton University In Section II, we outline our model and discuss its relation to the existing literature. Section III spells out the formal assumptions of the model and the nature of a political equilibrium. 3 In Grossman and Helpman (), we discuss the empirical evidence on campaign.
Geography, Technology, and Optimal Trade Policy with Heterogeneous Firms Antonella Nocco, Università del Salento Gianmarco I.P. Ottaviano, LSE, University of Bologna, CEP and CEPR.
James Poterba, president James Poterba is President of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He is also the Mitsui Professor of Economics at M.I.T.
Grossman-Helpman model of economic growth In the Grossman-Helpman model of economic growth occurs though innovation. But the innovation comes about through an .
This chapter focuses on the estimation and interpretation of gravity equations for bilateral trade. This necessarily involves a careful consideration of the theoretical underpinnings since it has become clear that naive approaches to estimation lead to biased and frequently misinterpreted results.