The language is often described in its earliest form… The hybridity of Irish literature in English After the literatures of Greek and Latin, literature in Irish is the oldest literature in Europe, dating from the 4th or 5th century ce.
Most were desperately poor, and many were suffering from starvation and disease. The Potato Famine killed more than 1 million people in five years and generated great bitterness and anger at the British for providing too little help to their Irish subjects.
The immigrants who reached America settled in Boston, New York, and other cities where they lived in difficult conditions. But most managed to survive, and their descendants have become a vibrant part of American culture. Even before the famine, Ireland was a country of extreme poverty. A Frenchman named Gustave de Beaumont traveled the country in the s and wrote about his travels.
A census report in found that nearly half the families in rural areas lived in windowless mud cabins, most with no furniture other than a stool. Pigs slept with their owners and heaps of manure lay by the doors. Boys and girls married young, with no money and almost no possessions.
They would build a mud hut, and move in with no more than a pot and a stool.
When asked why they married so young, the Bishop of Raphoe a town in Ireland replied: Ireland was not industrialized. The few industries that had been established were failing. The fisheries were undeveloped, and some fishermen could not even buy enough salt to preserve their catch. And there was no agricultural industry.
Most of the large and productive farms were owned by English Protestant gentry who collected rents and lived abroad. Many owners visited their property only once or twice in their lifetime.
Their property was managed by middlemen, who split up the farms into smaller and smaller sections to increase the rents.
The farms became too small to require hired labor. Bythree quarters of Irish laborers had no regular employment of any kind. With no employment available, the only way that a laborer could live and support a family was to get a patch of land and grow potatoes.
Potatoes were unique in many ways. Large numbers of them could be grown on small plots of land. An acre and a half could provide a family of six with enough food for a year. Potatoes were nutritious and easy to cook, and they could be fed to pigs and cattle and fowl.
And families did not need a plough to grow potatoes.
All they needed was a spade, and they could grow potatoes in wet ground and on mountain sides where no other kinds of plants could be cultivated. More than half of the Irish people depended on the potato as the main part of their diet, and almost 40 percent had a diet consisting almost entirely of potatoes, with some milk or fish as the only other source of nourishment.
Potatoes could not be stored for more than a year.Irish Potato Famine Essay examples Words 7 Pages In the early s life in Ireland wasn’t easy, Irish citizens got by day to day by farming and relying on the potato. Irish literature, the body of written works produced by the leslutinsduphoenix.com article discusses Irish literature written in English from about ; its history is closely linked with that of English leslutinsduphoenix.com-language literature is treated separately under Celtic literature.
The Irish Potato Famine Essay. The Irish Potato Famine Around A.D. the potato was introduced in Ireland. Because of the high nutrients and ease to grow the crop it was almost instantly adopted by the people, especially by the peasants.
Mar 29, · Naval supremacy 'When Britain really ruled the waves, in good Queen Bess's time' was the assessment of the late Victorian age's leading satirist, WS Gilbert. Irish Americans (Irish: Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural leslutinsduphoenix.com 33 million Americans — % of the total population — reported Irish ancestry in the American Community Survey conducted by the U.S.
Census Bureau. FROM FAMINE YEARS TO THE PRESENT It was the cataclysmic Potato Famine of , one of the most severe disasters in Irish history, that initiated the greatest departure of Irish .