This chartbook assesses the impact of the shift from pensions to individual savings by examining disparities in retirement preparedness and outcomes by income, race, ethnicity, education, gender, and marital status.
Russia Table of Contents The period of war communism was followed in the s by a partial retreat from Bolshevik principles. The New Economic Policy Novaya ekonomicheskaya politika--NEP; see Glossary permitted certain types of private economic activity, so that the country might recover from the ravages of the Civil War.
The interval was cut short, however, by the death of Lenin and the sharply different approach to governance of The new economic policy successor, Joseph Stalin.
Lenin realized that the radical approach to communism see Glossary was unsuited to existing conditions and jeopardized the survival of his regime. Now the Soviet leader proposed a tactical retreat, convincing the congress to adopt a temporary compromise with capitalism under the NEP program.
Under the NEP, market forces and the monetary system regained their importance. The state scrapped its The new economic policy of grain requisitioning in favor of taxation, permitting peasants to dispose of their produce as they pleased.
The NEP also denationalized service enterprises and much small-scale industry, leaving the "commanding heights" of the economy--large-scale industry, transportation, and foreign trade--under state control. Under the mixed economy called for under the NEP, agriculture and industry staged recoveries, with most branches of the economy attaining prewar levels of production by the late s.
In general, standards of living improved during this time, and the "NEP man"--the independent private trader--became a symbol of the era. About the time that the party sanctioned partial decentralization of the economy, it also approved a quasi-federal structure for the state.
During the Civil War, the non-Russian Soviet republics on the periphery of Russia were theoretically independent, but in fact they were controlled by the central government through the party and the Red Army. Some communists favored a centralized Soviet state, while nationalists wanted autonomy for the borderlands.
The constituent republics of this "Soviet Union" the Russian, Belorussian, Ukrainian, and Transcaucasian republics--the last combining Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia exercised a degree of cultural and linguistic autonomy, while the communist, predominantly Russian, leadership in Moscow retained political authority over the entire country.
The giant Central Asian territory was given republic status piecemeal, beginning with the inclusion of the Turkmen and Uzbek republics in and concluding with the separation of Kazakstan and Kyrgyzstan in By that year, the Soviet Union included eleven republics, all with government structures and ruling communist parties identical to the one in the Russian Republic.
The party consolidated its authority throughout the country, becoming a monolithic presence in state and society. Potential rivals outside the party, including prominent members of the abolished Menshevik faction and the Socialist Revolutionary Party, were exiled.
Within the party, Lenin denounced the formation of factions, particularly by radical-left party members. Central party organs subordinated local soviets to their authority. Party members perceived as less committed periodically were purged from the rosters.
The Politburo Political Bureauwhich became the elite policy-making agency of the nation, created the new post of general secretary for the supervision of personnel matters and assigned Stalin to this office in April A minor member of the party's Central Committee at the time of the Bolshevik Revolution, Stalin was thought to be a rather lackluster personality and therefore well suited to the routine work required of the general secretary.
Although a collective of prominent communists nominally guided the party and the Soviet Union, Lenin commanded such prestige and authority that even such brilliant theoreticians as Trotsky and Nikolay Bukharin generally yielded to his will.
The New Economic Policy (NEP) (Malay: Dasar Ekonomi Baru (DEB)) was a social re-engineering and affirmative action program formulated by the National Operations Council (NOC) in the aftermath of 13 May Incident in Malaysia. The New Economic Policy reintroduced a measure of stability to the economy and allowed the Soviet people to recover from years of war, civil war, and governmental mismanagement. The small businessmen and managers who flourished in this period became known as NEP men. New economic policy definition, (in the Soviet Union) a program in effect from to , reviving the wage system and private ownership of some factories and .
But when Lenin became temporarily incapacitated after a stroke in Maythe unity of the Politburo fractured, and a troika triumvirate formed by Stalin, Lev Kamenev, and Grigoriy Zinov'yev assumed leadership in opposition to Trotsky.
Lenin recovered late in and found fault with the troika, and particularly with Stalin. In Lenin's view, Stalin had used coercion to force non-Russian republics to join the Soviet Union, he was uncouth, and he was accumulating too much power through his office of general secretary.
Although Lenin recommended that Stalin be removed from that position, the Politburo decided not to take action, and Stalin still was in office when Lenin died in January As important as Lenin's activities were to the establishment of the Soviet Union, his legacy to the Soviet future was perhaps even more significant.
By willingly changing his policies to suit new situations, Lenin had developed a pragmatic interpretation of Marxism later called Marxism-Leninism--see Glossary that implied that the party should follow any course that would ultimately lead to communism.
His party, while still permitting intraorganizational debate, insisted that its members adhere to the organization's decisions once they were adopted, in accordance with the principle of democratic centralism.
Finally, because the party embodied the dictatorship of the proletariat, organized opposition could not be tolerated, and adversaries would be prosecuted. Thus, although the Soviet regime was not totalitarian when he died, Lenin had nonetheless laid the foundation upon which such a tyranny would later arise.
Stalin's Rise to Power After Lenin's death, two conflicting schools of thought about the future of the Soviet Union arose in party debates.
Left-wing communists believed that world revolution was essential to the survival of socialism in the economically backward Soviet Union. Trotsky, one of the primary proponents of this position, called for Soviet support of a permanent world revolutionary movement.
As for domestic policy, the left wing advocated the rapid development of the economy and the creation of a socialist society. In contrast to these militant communists, the right wing of the party, recognizing that world revolution was unlikely in the immediate future, favored the gradual development of the Soviet Union through continuation of pragmatic programs like the NEP.
Yet even Bukharin, one of the major right-wing theoreticians, believed that socialism could not triumph in the Soviet Union without assistance from more economically advanced socialist countries. Against this backdrop of contrasting perceptions of the Soviet future, the leading figures of the All-Union Communist Party Bolshevik --the new name of the Russian Communist Party Bolshevik as of December competed for influence.The New Economic Policy (NEP, Russian новая экономическая политика, НЭП) was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin in as a temporary expedient.
The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) works to reduce drug use and its consequences by leading and coordinating the development, implementation, and assessment of U.S.
drug policy. In. But after the new economic policy the world class competition started and to stand this global competition the companies need to adopt the world class technology. To adopt and implement the world class technology the investment in R & D department has to increase.
A new CEPR paper examines recent IMF research on gains from multilateral trade liberalization, as under the World Trade Organization, and finds that the gains. What Is globalization?
Is it the integration of economic,globalization definition political, and cultural systems across the globe? Or is it the dominance of developed countries in decision-making, at the expense of poorer, less powerful nations?
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