In Thomas More published Utopia, a description of a fictional island in the Atlantic with an ideal society, in order to draw a sharp contrast with the disorderly political situation of his own time. He created the name from topos "place" and ou, Greek for "no", since he was well aware that nowhere so perfect was likely to exist on earth. People have long dreamed of creating utopian communities; some of them have joined communes, societies where other idealists like themselves have chosen to live in a cooperative way according to certain principles. Not just communes but plans of all kinds have been labeled utopian by critics.
Inter-religious utopias[ edit ] The inter-religious utopia is similar to multiculturalism where real world cultures have successfully worked together to create a wider society based on shared values.
A transparent ideology of God and religion used in inter-religious utopias is commonly stated by many people as their view of God manifesting within a community. Other inter-religious utopias may go even further and describe a religion where humans become God or merge with a primal force that reigned before the birth of the universe.
Religion and God could be used as a self-motivating factor for people to believe in and to raise themselves out of difficult situations.
These utopian societies included the Shakerswho originated in England in the 18th century and arrived in America in A number of religious utopian societies from Europe came to the United States from the 18th century throughout the 19th century, including the Society of the Woman in the Wilderness led by Johannes Kelpius —the Ephrata Cloister established inand the Harmony Societyamong others.
The Harmony Society was a Christian theosophy and pietist group founded in IptingenGermanyUtopian deception On February 15,about followers formally organized the Harmony Society, placing all their goods in common.
The group lasted untilmaking it one Utopian deception the longest-running financially successful communes in American history. Although this utopian experiment has become better known today for its manufacture of Oneida silverware, it was one of the longest-running communes in American history.
The Amana Colonies were communal settlements in Iowastarted by radical German pietistswhich lasted from to The Amana Corporationmanufacturer of refrigerators and household appliances, was originally started by the group. The Amish and Hutterites can also be considered an attempt towards religious utopia.
A wide variety of intentional communities with some type of faith-based ideas have also started across the world. A new heaven and new earth [Rev The main difference compared to the Old Testament promises is that such a defeat also has an ontological value Rev Daily and mundane details of this new Earth, where God and Jesus rule, remain unclear, although it is implied to be similar to the biblical Garden of Eden.
Some theological philosophers believe that heaven will not be a physical realm, but instead an incorporeal place for souls.
Technology has affected the way humans have lived to such an extent that normal functions, like sleep, eating or even reproduction, have been replaced by artificial means.
Other examples include a society where humans have struck a balance with technology and it is merely used to enhance the human living condition e. In place of the static perfection of a utopia, libertarian transhumanists envision an " extropia ", an open, evolving society allowing individuals and voluntary groupings to form the institutions and social forms they prefer.
Mariah Utsawa presented a theoretical basis for technological utopianism and set out to develop a variety of technologies ranging from maps to designs for cars and houses which might lead to the development of such a utopia. Critics, such as Jacques Ellul and Timothy Mitchell advocate precautions against the premature embrace of new technologies.
Both raise questions about changing responsibility and freedom brought by division of labour. Authors such as John Zerzan and Derrick Jensen consider that modern technology is progressively depriving humans of their autonomy, and advocate the collapse of the industrial civilization, in favor of small-scale organization, as a necessary path to avoid the threat of technology on human freedom and sustainability.
There are many examples of techno-dystopias portrayed in mainstream culture, such as the classics Brave New World and Nineteen Eighty-Fouroften published as "", which have explored some of these topics. Feminism[ edit ] Utopias have been used to explore the ramifications of genders being either a societal construct, or a biologically "hard-wired" imperative, or some mix of the two.
In science fiction and technological speculationgender can be challenged on the biological as well as the social level. Three "mothers" per child are the norm, and they are chosen in a gender neutral way men as well as women may become "mothers" on the basis of their experience and ability.
Voices are certainly as influential and famous as any of the American feminist utopias.
In many cultures, societies, and religions, there is some myth or memory of a distant past when humankind lived in a primitive and simple state, but at the same time one of perfect happiness and fulfillment.
In those days, the various myths tell us, there was an instinctive harmony between humanity and nature. Both were easily satisfied by the abundance provided by nature. Accordingly, there were no motives whatsoever for war or oppression.However, Dystopian and utopian societies are not so different after all.
Dystopia is the opposite of utopia because everything seems to be imbalanced, chaotic, lawless, unruly, dirty, violent, and controlling. Nov 10, · The utopian vision seems to have three fatal effects on the star-struck leftist: 1) a divorce from reality, 2) a moral free-pass for oneself and one's fellow travelers on the journey, and 3) a demonization of persons, entities, and states which block the way to utopia.
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or. In Thomas More published Utopia, a description of a fictional island in the Atlantic with an ideal society, in order to draw a sharp contrast with .